Pediatric Ophthalmology Consultants

Retinopathy of Prematurity

What is Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disease caused by abnormal development of retinal blood vessels in premature infants. The retina is the inner layer of the eye that receives light and turns it into visual messages that are sent to the brain. When a baby is born […]


What is pseudostrabismus? Strabismus is the medical term for any eye misalignment. Pseudostrabismus refers to a false appearance of strabismus caused by an optical illusion.\ Why do some children’s eyes look crossed?                    The skin folds at the inner corner of the eyelids are called epicanthal folds […]

Progressive (High) Myopia

Myopia (“near-sightedness”) is a condition in which the optical system of the eye causes incoming light rays to focus in front of the retina, instead of focusing directly on the retinal surface. Various factors can cause this abnormal focus of light rays, including abnormalities of the lens or cornea, or by an eye that is […]

Optic Neuritis

What is optic neuritis? Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve [See figure 1]. As the photo demonstrates, the optic nerve becomes swollen and the blood vessels become larger.  This inflammation can cause loss of vision because the optic nerve is crucial for vision.  It is the structure that carries visual information from the […]

Optic Nerve Pit

What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a small pocket adjacent to the optic nerve. A minute amount of the tissue of the retina protrudes backwards through that defect. This is a condition that he child is born with. It usually occurs in one eye only, however in 15% of children it […]

Optic Nerve Hypoplasia

What is the optic nerve? The optic nerve is a collection of more than a million nerve fibers that transmit visual signals from the eye to the brain [See Figure 1]. The optic nerve develops the first trimester of intrauterine life. What is optic nerve hypoplasia? Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital condition in […]

Optic Nerve Drusen

What are optic nerve drusen? The optic nerve is the physical connection between the eye and the brain.  All the visual information taken in by the eye is transmitted to the brain along the optic nerve. Optic nerve drusen are abnormal globular collections of protein and calcium salts which accumulate in the optic nerve.  Drusen […]

Optic Nerve Atrophy

What is the optic nerve? The optic nerve is in the center of the retina and is a circular to oval pinkish area measuring 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter. From the center of the nerve radiate the major blood vessels of the retina.  The optic nerve itself carries over one million nerves that connect […]

Oculomotor Apraxia

What is oculomotor apraxia? Ocular motor apraxia (OMA) is the absence of, or a defect in, the control of voluntary purposeful eye movement.  Children with this condition have difficulty moving their eyes in a desired direction. In other words, their saccades (the normal, quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes in the same direction) are abnormal. Because of […]


What is nystagmus? Nystagmus is an involuntary, shaking, “to and fro” movement of the eyes. These jiggling or jerking movements are usually in horizontal or vertical directions. What are the different types of nystagmus? Nystagmus is typically classified as congenital or acquired, with multiple subcategories. Congenital nystagmusonset is typically between 6 weeks and several months […]


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