Pediatric Ophthalmology Consultants

Strabismus Measurements

How is strabismus measured? Eye misalignment or strabismus can be measured by several different methods.  The measurements help guide the surgical and medical management of strabismus. The age, vision, and level of cooperation of the patient determine which method is most accurate and feasible. What is light reflex testing? Light reflex testing (called Hirschberg testing) […]

Stickler Syndrome

What is Stickler Syndrome? Stickler syndrome is a progressive genetic disorder of connective tissue throughout the body. The condition was first described by Dr. Gunnar B. Stickler in 1965 and was originally called “Hereditary Progressive Arthro-ophthalmopathy” because of its tendency to affect the joints and the eyes. What are the features of Stickler Syndrome? Stickler […]

Sixth Nerve Palsy

What is cranial nerve VI palsy? Sixth cranial nerve palsy is weakness of the nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle. The lateral rectus muscle rotates the eye away from the nose and when the lateral rectus muscle is weak, the eye crosses inward toward the nose (esotropia). The esotropia is larger when looking at a […]

Shaken Baby Syndrome

What is shaken baby syndrome? Shaken baby syndrome (SBS), also known as abusive head trauma (AHT), is a diagnosis that may include a combination of findings including broken bones, skull fractures, brain bleeding and retinal hemorrhages. SBS occurs when a baby is shaken repeatedly, often by a frustrated caretaker in an effort to quiet an […]

Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome

What is Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome? Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS) is a genetic multi-system disorder characterized by facial abnormalities, broad thumbs and great toes, and developmental disability. It was first described in 1957 and was identified as a recognizable syndrome in 1963 by Jack Rubinstein and HooshangTaybi. How is RTS diagnosed? The diagnosis of RTS can be made […]


What is retinoblastoma? Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in children.  Retinoblastoma originates from the retina (light-sensitive lining of the eye). One (unilateral) or both (bilateral) eyes may be affected and it typically occurs in children less than 5 years old. How common is retinoblastoma? Retinoblastoma affects approximately 300 children per year […]


What is retinoscopy? Retinoscopy (also called skiascopy) is a technique to objectively determine the refractive error of the eye (farsighted, nearsighted, astigmatism) and the need for glasses. The test can be quick, easy, reliably accurate and requires minimal cooperation from the patient. How is it performed?               A hand […]

Retinopathy of Prematurity

What is Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disease caused by abnormal development of retinal blood vessels in premature infants. The retina is the inner layer of the eye that receives light and turns it into visual messages that are sent to the brain. When a baby is born […]

Refractive Errors in Children

How does the eye focus light?               In order to see clearly, light rays from an object must focus onto the inner back layer of the eye [See figure 1]. The eye works like a camera.  It has an opening at the front (the pupil), a focusing mechanism (the […]


What is pseudostrabismus? Strabismus is the medical term for any eye misalignment. Pseudostrabismus refers to a false appearance of strabismus caused by an optical illusion.\ Why do some children’s eyes look crossed?                    The skin folds at the inner corner of the eyelids are called epicanthal folds […]


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