Pediatric Ophthalmology Consultants


CureSight™ is a new digital system to treat Amblyopia (Lazy Eye). CureSight™ is an FDA cleared eye-tracking digital system designed to treat amblyopia (lazy eye) from the comfort of your home. Designed for children ages 4 to 9 years old. CureSight™ is an alternative treatment to patching or eye drops to treat amblyopia or lazy […]

Williams Syndrome

What causes Williams Syndrome? Williams Syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material from a specific region of chromosome 7 that affects an elastin gene. Elastin is a protein that gives blood vessels strength and the ability to stretch.  It is a rare disorder and is also called Elfin Facies Syndrome. How is Williams Syndrome […]

Vision Therapy

What is vision therapy? “Vision therapy” is a term used by optometrists. Optometrists define vision therapy as an attempt to develop or improve visual skills and abilities; improve visual comfort, ease, and efficiency; and change visual processing or interpretation of visual information. An optometric vision therapy program consists of supervised in-office and at home reinforcement […]

Vision Screening

What is vision screening? Vision screening is an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead to vision loss   so that a referral can be made to an appropriate eye care professional for further evaluation and treatment How is vision screening performed? There are a […]

Treatment for Progressive Myopia

During childhood, myopia is typically treated with glasses or contact lenses.  Refractive surgery, such as LASIK, is typically used in adults once the refractive error has stabilized.  In progressive myopia, the near-sightedness often begins in early childhood, and worsens through adolescence. Many patients and families inquire about why progressive myopia occurs and want to know […]


What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is a disease that results from infection with the protozoan intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In the eye, Toxoplasma infections frequently cause significant inflammation and subsequent scarring which may temporarily or permanently impair vision.  Ocular toxoplasmosis can be congenital or acquired, and worldwide, toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of inflammation in […]

Thyroid Eye Disorders

What is the thyroid? The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland located at the base of the front of the neck.  The thyroid gland regulates the thyroid hormone, and plays an important role in regulating body metabolism. What are euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid? Normal thyroid hormone level in the blood is considered euthyroid. When the […]

Third Nerve Palsy

What is a third nerve palsy? The third cranial nerve controls the movement of four of the six eye muscles.  These muscles move the eye inward, up and down, and they rotate the eye. The third cranial nerve also controls constriction of the pupil, the position of the upper eyelid, and the ability of the […]

Sturge-Weber Syndrome

What is Sturge-Weber syndrome?                            Sturge-Weber syndrome is characterized by a reddish discoloration of the skin on one side of the face (port wine stain) and malformation of blood vessels of the brain. Does every child with a port wine stain of the skin have Sturge-Weber syndrome? No. The reddish discoloration of the face may […]


What is strabismus and how common is it? Strabismus is any misalignment of the eyes. It is estimated that 4% of the U.S. population has strabismus. Are there different types of strabismus and if so, how are they named? There are many different types of strabismus. Strabismus is most commonly described by the direction of […]

Strabismus Surgery

What is strabismus surgery? Strabismus surgery loosens or tightens eye muscles, which changes the alignment of the eyes relative to each other. What kind of anesthesia is used for strabismus surgery? The type of anesthesia depends on patient age and health as well as patient preference. Most children undergo general anesthesia. Adults may have general […]

Strabismus Measurements

How is strabismus measured? Eye misalignment or strabismus can be measured by several different methods.  The measurements help guide the surgical and medical management of strabismus. The age, vision, and level of cooperation of the patient determine which method is most accurate and feasible. What is light reflex testing? Light reflex testing (called Hirschberg testing) […]

Stickler Syndrome

What is Stickler Syndrome? Stickler syndrome is a progressive genetic disorder of connective tissue throughout the body. The condition was first described by Dr. Gunnar B. Stickler in 1965 and was originally called “Hereditary Progressive Arthro-ophthalmopathy” because of its tendency to affect the joints and the eyes. What are the features of Stickler Syndrome? Stickler […]

Sixth Nerve Palsy

What is cranial nerve VI palsy? Sixth cranial nerve palsy is weakness of the nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle. The lateral rectus muscle rotates the eye away from the nose and when the lateral rectus muscle is weak, the eye crosses inward toward the nose (esotropia). The esotropia is larger when looking at a […]

Shaken Baby Syndrome

What is shaken baby syndrome? Shaken baby syndrome (SBS), also known as abusive head trauma (AHT), is a diagnosis that may include a combination of findings including broken bones, skull fractures, brain bleeding and retinal hemorrhages. SBS occurs when a baby is shaken repeatedly, often by a frustrated caretaker in an effort to quiet an […]

Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome

What is Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome? Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS) is a genetic multi-system disorder characterized by facial abnormalities, broad thumbs and great toes, and developmental disability. It was first described in 1957 and was identified as a recognizable syndrome in 1963 by Jack Rubinstein and HooshangTaybi. How is RTS diagnosed? The diagnosis of RTS can be made […]


What is retinoblastoma? Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in children.  Retinoblastoma originates from the retina (light-sensitive lining of the eye). One (unilateral) or both (bilateral) eyes may be affected and it typically occurs in children less than 5 years old. How common is retinoblastoma? Retinoblastoma affects approximately 300 children per year […]


What is retinoscopy? Retinoscopy (also called skiascopy) is a technique to objectively determine the refractive error of the eye (farsighted, nearsighted, astigmatism) and the need for glasses. The test can be quick, easy, reliably accurate and requires minimal cooperation from the patient. How is it performed?               A hand […]

Retinopathy of Prematurity

What is Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disease caused by abnormal development of retinal blood vessels in premature infants. The retina is the inner layer of the eye that receives light and turns it into visual messages that are sent to the brain. When a baby is born […]

Refractive Errors in Children

How does the eye focus light?               In order to see clearly, light rays from an object must focus onto the inner back layer of the eye [See figure 1]. The eye works like a camera.  It has an opening at the front (the pupil), a focusing mechanism (the […]


What is pseudostrabismus? Strabismus is the medical term for any eye misalignment. Pseudostrabismus refers to a false appearance of strabismus caused by an optical illusion.\ Why do some children’s eyes look crossed?                    The skin folds at the inner corner of the eyelids are called epicanthal folds […]

Progressive (High) Myopia

Myopia (“near-sightedness”) is a condition in which the optical system of the eye causes incoming light rays to focus in front of the retina, instead of focusing directly on the retinal surface. Various factors can cause this abnormal focus of light rays, including abnormalities of the lens or cornea, or by an eye that is […]


Photoscreeningis a form of pediatric vision screening that uses a special-purpose camera to look for focusing problems that could indicate a child is not seeing well with one or both eyes and might need glasses.  It is an alternative to a standard vision test with an eye chart and is most often used in young […]

Pediatric Ophthalmologist

A pediatric ophthalmologist is a medical and surgical doctor (an Eye MD) who graduated from medical school and specializes in the care of children’s eyes.  All ophthalmologists have training in children’s eye disorders, but the pediatric ophthalmologist has additional training, experience, and expertise in examining children, and has the greatest knowledge of possible conditions that […]

Pediatric Ocular Trauma

What causes eye injuries? Injuries to the eye and surrounding structures can be caused by blunt trauma from a ball or fist, sharp trauma such as a stick or projectile, or chemical trauma such as splash from a caustic substance like a cleaning material or pool supplies. Which part of the eye can be injured? […]

Pediatric Low Vision

What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes a vision impairment known as low vision.  A person with low vision has decreased vision (usually defined as 20/70 or less), a decreased field of vision (peripheral vision), or both.  People with low vision are not blind and usually retain some useful vision.  […]

Patching Tips for Parents

When is patching is recommended? Patching is recommended when children are diagnosed with amblyopia or lazy eye. It works by occluding the eye with normal vision so that the vision in the poorer seeing amblyopic eye improves. What kind of patch should be used? An eye patch with adhesive on the back is best. It […]

Orthoptist/ Orthoptics

What is a certified orthoptist? A certified orthoptist is an allied health professional uniquely trained to evaluate and manage childhood and adult eye movement abnormalities.   What is the training of an orthoptist? Orthoptists study 2 years in an accredited program after obtaining a baccalaureate degree. Certification requires passage of written and practical examinations administered […]

Optic Neuritis

What is optic neuritis? Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve [See figure 1]. As the photo demonstrates, the optic nerve becomes swollen and the blood vessels become larger.  This inflammation can cause loss of vision because the optic nerve is crucial for vision.  It is the structure that carries visual information from the […]

Optic Nerve Pit

What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a small pocket adjacent to the optic nerve. A minute amount of the tissue of the retina protrudes backwards through that defect. This is a condition that he child is born with. It usually occurs in one eye only, however in 15% of children it […]

Optic Nerve Hypoplasia

What is the optic nerve? The optic nerve is a collection of more than a million nerve fibers that transmit visual signals from the eye to the brain [See Figure 1]. The optic nerve develops the first trimester of intrauterine life. What is optic nerve hypoplasia? Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital condition in […]

Optic Nerve Drusen

What are optic nerve drusen? The optic nerve is the physical connection between the eye and the brain.  All the visual information taken in by the eye is transmitted to the brain along the optic nerve. Optic nerve drusen are abnormal globular collections of protein and calcium salts which accumulate in the optic nerve.  Drusen […]

Optic Nerve Atrophy

What is the optic nerve? The optic nerve is in the center of the retina and is a circular to oval pinkish area measuring 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter. From the center of the nerve radiate the major blood vessels of the retina.  The optic nerve itself carries over one million nerves that connect […]

Oculomotor Apraxia

What is oculomotor apraxia? Ocular motor apraxia (OMA) is the absence of, or a defect in, the control of voluntary purposeful eye movement.  Children with this condition have difficulty moving their eyes in a desired direction. In other words, their saccades (the normal, quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes in the same direction) are abnormal. Because of […]

Ocular Injury

What causes eye injuries? Injuries to the eye and surrounding structures can be caused by blunt trauma from sport balls, fists, or airsoft/pellet/paintball guns; sharp trauma such as a stick, projectiles or knives; or chemical trauma such as splash from a caustic substance like a cleaning material or pool supplies.  Safety glasses should be worn […]


What is nystagmus? Nystagmus is an involuntary, shaking, “to and fro” movement of the eyes. These jiggling or jerking movements are usually in horizontal or vertical directions. What are the different types of nystagmus? Nystagmus is typically classified as congenital or acquired, with multiple subcategories. Congenital nystagmusonset is typically between 6 weeks and several months […]

Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

What is idiopathic intracranial hypertension? Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder that results from an increase in the pressure of the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF) that cushions and protects the brain and spinal cord. The CSF is constantly produced in the brain and reabsorbed back into the bloodstream at a fairly constant rate.  This allows the fluid pressure around […]

Infantile Esotropia

What is infantile esotropia? Esotropia is an inward turning of one or both eyes. Infantile esotropia begins at birth or during the first year of life. Infantile esotropia is also called congenital esotropia [See figure 1]. Why does infantile esotropia occur? The cause of infantile esotropia is unknown. We know there is an inability to […]


What is a hyphema? A hyphema is an accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye.  This is the space between the cornea (front clear surface of the eye) and iris (colored part of the eye). What causes a hyphema? A hyphema is most often caused by blunt trauma to the eye.  It […]

Herpes Eye Disease

What is Herpes?  Herpes Simplex is a common virus affecting humans.  There are two types of Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV).  HSV Type 1 causes cold sores and can affect the face and eyes.  HSV Type 2 primarily causes genital infections. What are the symptoms of HSV in the eye? HSV can affect almost any part […]

Headaches in Children

Why do children get headaches? Headaches in children are common and usually not serious.  Causes include migraines, stress and tension headaches, trauma, sinus disease, and eye problems.  Certain foods with nitrate preservatives and MSG (monosodium glutamate) can trigger headaches.  Brain tumors in children as a cause for headaches are extremely rare, and are usually associated […]

Glaucoma for Children

What is glaucoma? Glaucoma is a group of diseases characterized by damage to the optic nerve that often occurs when the eye pressure is too high. This causes optic nerve damage and can result in severe vision loss. Most often the pressure is too high because the eye is able to make the fluid it […]

Glasses for Children

Why does a child need glasses? Children may need glasses for several reasons—some of which are different than for adults. Because a child’s visual system is growing and developing, especially during the first 5-6 years of life, glasses may play an important role in ensuring normal development of vision. The main reasons a child may […]

Glasses Fitting for Children

What type of lenses should be used? Polycarbonate (shatter proof) lenses are the ONLY type of lenses that should be prescribed to children unless your physician tells you differently.  Polycarbonate lenses have built in U.V. protection to block harmful rays from the sun, they are light in weight and work well with strong prescriptions, and […]

Fourth Nerve Palsy

What is a fourth nerve palsy? The fourth cranial nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle, so weakness of the nerve is also known as superior oblique palsy.  Weakness of the superior oblique muscle causes a combination of vertical, horizontal and torsional misalignment of the eyes.  The vertical misalignment is typically the most noticeable feature. Palsy refers to […]

Eye Safety

Where do most eye injuries occur? An eye injury can occur at any time, in any place. Adequate prevention is important and could probably eliminate most eye injuries. Close to 50% of injuries occur during sports and recreational activities–more often in children and teens than any other age group. What kind of toys can cause […]


What is exotropia? Exotropia is a form of strabismus (eye misalignment) in which one or both of the eyes turn outward. It is the opposite of crossed eyes, or esotropia. Exotropia may occur from time to time (intermittent exotropia) or may be constant, and is found in every age group [See figures 1 and 2]. […]

Excessive Blinking in Children

Why do we blink? Blinking is a normal reflex that protects the eye from dryness, bright light, and fingers or other objects coming towards it.  Blinking also regulates tears, which nourish and cleanse the surface of the eye  The blinking rate in newborns is only 2 times per minute.  This increases to 14-17 times per […]


What is esotropia?                           Esotropia is in-turning of one or both eyes [See figure 1]. It may be intermittent or constant and may occur with near fixation, distance fixation, or both. The crossing may occur predominantly with one eye or may alternate between eyes. […]

Duane Syndrome

What is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), is a congenital and non-progressive type of strabismus due to abnormal development of the 6thcranial nerve. It is characterized by difficulty rotating one or both eyes outward (abduction) or inward (adduction).  There may also be changes of eyelid position on attempted movement of […]

Down Syndrome

What causes Down syndrome? Down syndrome is caused by a duplication of all or part of chromosome 21, making three copies of the chromosome rather than the usual two copies. Down syndrome is called Ttrisomy 21trisomy 21TTrisomy 21. The extra genetic material leads to certain physical changes in persons with Down syndrome. How common is […]

Dissociated Vertical Deviation

What is Dissociated Vertical Deviation (DVD)? DVD is a condition in which one eye drifts upward [See figure 1]. The eye may drift upward either frequently or infrequently. The amount of drifting mayvary during the course of the day.  DVD may be present in one or both eyes. It is possible that the up drift […]

Dilating Eye Drops

What are dilating eye drops?                                   Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge (dilate) the pupil of the eye. There are two types of drops: one type stimulates contraction of the muscles that enlarge the pupil (such as phenylephrine); the other type relaxes the muscles that make the pupil […]

Difference between an Ophthalmologist, Optometrist and Optician

Your sight depends on seeing the right eye doctor at the right time. When it’s time to “get your eyes checked,” make sure you are seeing the right eye care professional for your needs. Ophthalmologists, optometrists and opticians each play an important role in providing eye care to consumers. But the levels of training and […]

Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Retinopathy

What is Diabetes Mellitus? Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood glucose (sugar) levels, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. There are three main types of Diabetes Mellitus (DM): Type […]

Dermoid Cyst

What is a dermoid? A dermoid is an overgrowth of normal, non-cancerous tissue in an abnormal location. Dermoids occur all over the body. The ones in and around the eye are usually comprised of skin, hair, and/or fat [See figure 1]. Where are dermoids found around the eyes? There are two main dermoid types that […]

Cranial Nerve Palsy

What is a cranial nerve? The brainstem connects the spinal cord to the brain.  The brainstem performs spinal-cord like functions for the head.  The cranial nerves emanate from the brainstem.  They provide sensory and motor functions that deal with the special senses (smell, sight, hearing, equilibrium, and taste). Which cranial nerves pertain to the eyes? […]

Cortical Visual Impairment

What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased visual response due to a neurological problem affecting the visual part of the brain. Typically, a child with CVI has a normal eye exam or has an eye condition that cannot account for the abnormal visual behavior. It is one of the most […]

Corneal Abrasions

What is a corneal abrasion? A corneal abrasion is a scratch or cut on the outermost surface of the cornea, the epithelium. The cornea is the clear part on the front of the eye and has multiple layers, the most superficial one being the epithelium. The cornea covers the colored part of the eye (iris) […]

Convergence Insufficiency

What is convergence insufficiency? Convergence insufficiency is the inability to maintain binocular function (keeping the two eyes working together) while working at a near distance. Typically, one eye will turn outward (intermittent exotropia) when focusing on a word or object at near. What is the difference between convergence insufficiency and exotropia? In convergence insufficiency, eye […]


What is conjunctivitis? Conjunctivitis or “pink eye” is a condition where the eyes look pink or red and may have discharge. Symptoms may include burning, itching, irritation, discharge, or crusting of the lashes. What causes conjunctivitis? Conjunctivitis may be caused by bacteria, viruses, other infectious agents, chemicals, or allergies. How is conjunctivitis treated? There are […]

Color Blindness

What is color blindness? Color blindness or color deficiency is the inability to see certain colors.  There are color-sensing pigments in the nerve cells of the eye that pick up red, blue, or green light.  People with color blindness lack some or all of these pigments.   If just one pigment is missing, it may be […]


What is a coloboma? A coloboma is a congenital defect in the structure of either the eyelid or the eye [See figure 1]. Is coloboma heritable? Coloboma can be inherited or can occur spontaneously. What medical problems are associated with coloboma? Coloboma of any eye structure can occur in isolation or it can occur with […]


What is a chalazion?                         A chalazion is a localized bump in the eyelid of varying sizes. {See Figure 1]. More than one chalazion can occur in an eyelid at the same time, and both upper and lower eyelids may be affected. A chalazion […]


What is cellulitis? Cellulitis is an infection or inflammation of the eyelid skin and/or the eye socket (orbit) and surrounding tissue. What is the orbital septum? The orbital septum is a fibrous membrane that separates the eyelid skin from the deeper structures of the orbit. What is preseptal cellulitis? Preseptal cellulitis is an infection or […]

Capillary Hemangioma

What is a capillary hemangioma?                               A capillary hemangioma (“strawberry” birthmark) is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor consisting of an abnormal overgrowth of tiny blood vessels. Capillary hemangiomas may not be present at birth, but appear within the first 6 months of […]

Brown Syndrome

What is Brown syndrome? Brown syndrome was first described by Dr. Harold W. Brown who originally described it as “Superior Oblique Tendon Sheath syndrome” (see figure 1). Calling this a “syndrome” is a misnomer in that the problem is isolated to the eye—specifically the superior oblique muscle/tendon and the trochlea.  It is a mechanical problem […]


What is blepharitis? Blepharitis is an inflammation or infection of the eyelids. It is also known as granulated eyelids and is commonly a chronic condition. It can affect both children and adults. It is a benign condition but can cause frequent and annoying symptoms. What causes blepharitis? There is no one specific cause of blepharitis; […]


What is Anisometropia? Anisometropia means that the two eyes have a different refractive power, so there is unequal focus between the two eyes. This is often due to one eye having a slightly different shape or size from the other causing asymmetric curvature (astigmatism), asymmetric far-sightedness (hyperopia), or asymmetric near-sightedness (myopia). Why is this a […]

Anisocoria and Horner’s Syndrome

What is the pupil? The colored part of the eye is called the iris. It is a circular muscle, similar in shape to a donut. The empty hole in the middle, which allows light to enter the eye, is called the pupil. When in a bright room or outdoors the pupil usually constricts; conversely when […]


What is Aniridia?                 Aniridia is an eye disorder where the iris (colored ring structure of the eye that forms the pupil) is malformed. In some cases, other structures of the eye are also poorly developed.  The word aniridia implies that there is “no iris,” but in fact […]

Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery

What kinds of anesthesia are available for children having eye surgery? There are two main types of anesthesia: local and general.  Local anesthesia consists of numbing the area around the site to be operated on by applying or injecting anesthetic agents.  For example, dentists use local anesthesia by injecting lidocaine in the area of the […]


What is amblyopia?                   Amblyopia is decreased vision in one or both eyes due to abnormal development of vision in infancy or childhood.  In amblyopia, there may not be an obvious problem of the eye. Vision loss occurs because nerve pathways between the brain and the eye […]

Allergic Conjunctivitis

What is allergic conjunctivitis? Allergic conjunctivitis is a very common eye condition affecting more than 20% of the population. It is a reaction of the eye to allergens in the environment such as dust, pollen, animal dander, and medications. If someone is allergic to a particular substance and is exposed to it, an allergic reaction […]


What is albinism?                 Albinism is an inherited condition present at birth, characterized by a reduced or lack of pigment that normally gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes. [figure 1]. How common is albinism? One person in 17,000 has some type of albinism. Albinism affects people […]


What is Achromatopsia? Achromatopsia is a non-progressive and hereditary visual disorder which is characterized by the absence of color vision, decreased vision, light sensitivity, and nystagmus. The cause of this disorder is absence of functioning cones (photoreceptors) in the retina. Patients with achromatopsia are only able to perceive black, white and gray shades colors. Their […]

Accommodative Esotropia

What is accommodative esotropia? Accommodative esotropia, or refractive esotropia, is one of the most common forms of strabismus (crossed eye). It refers to eye crossing that is caused by the focusing efforts of the eyes as they try to see clearly. Patients with refractive esotropia are typically farsighted (hyperopic). This means that the eyes must […]

Abnormal Head Position

What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs when the head is deviated out of the normal primary straight head position. Abnormal head positions can include chin up, chin down, tilting of the head to the right or left, face turns to the right or left, or a combination of […]

Eye Surgery

The most common type of pediatric eye surgery performed is strabismus surgery for misalignment of the eyes. Other frequently performed procedures are for ptosis or droopy lids, lacrimal surgery traumatic and for congenital nasolacrimal obstruction, orbital cysts or dermoid and chalazia ( style ) and other oculoplastic interventions. Less frequently intraocular surgery for congenital and […]

1st visit to the ophthalmologist?

Learn all you need to know If you are here for your first child’s eye examination, you may have some questions or concerns about what is going to happen. We have extensive experience diagnosing and treating eye problems in children. Over the past 30 years, we have examined thousands of patients, including children with common […]

Uveitis and Iritis

The uvea is the middle layer of the eyeball. It consists of the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroids. The iris is the part of the eye you are looking at when you say a person has blue eyes or brown eyes. Its function is to change the size of the pupil (the round, […]

Thyroid Eye Disease

What are thyroid gland disorders? The thyroid gland, located in the neck, produces thyroid hormone which helps regulate our metabolism. It may produce either too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidisms) or too little (hypothyroidism). Imbalance in either direction can cause eye and vision problems. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include fatigue, fast heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, fine […]

The Eye and Learning Disabilities

The problem of learning disability has become a matter of increasing public concern, which has led to exploitation by some practitioners of the normal concern of parents for the welfare of their children. A child’s inability to read with understanding as a result of defects in processing visual symbols, a condition which has been called […]

Strabismus in Adults

What is adult strabismus? Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions. Adult strabismus occurs in approximately one percent of the population. What causes adult strabismus? Most adult strabismus is simply persistent childhood strabismus. Strabismus which occurs in adulthood without a history of childhood strabismus should be carefully […]

Strabismus in Children

What is strabismus? Strabismus is a visual defect in which the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions. One eye may look straight ahead, while the other eye turns inward, outward, upward or downward. The eye turn may be constant, or it may come and go. The turned eye may straighten at times, and […]

What is Ptosis?

Ptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid. The lid may droop only slightly, or it may cover the pupil entirely. In some cases, ptosis can restrict and even block normal vision. It can be present in children, as well as adults, and may be treated with surgery. Ptosis can affect one or both eyelids, […]

What is pseudostrabismus?

Pseudostrabismus is the false appearance of misaligned eye. When the eyes are truly misaligned, the condition is called strabismus. In strabismus, the eyes can drift in, out, up or down. In pseudostrabismus, the eyes appear crossed in but are actually straight. This is common in infants and young children due to their facial structures. The […]

Patching of the Eye to Treat Amblyopia

What is patching? Patching is a technique for treating amblyopia (lazy eye). The good eye is covered to encourage the development of the lazy eye. Amblyopia can be caused by unequal refractive errors, crossed eyes, misaligned eyes (strabismus), or other abnormalities. When should treatment begin? Patching should begin as early as possible. When first applying […]

Pediatric Ophthalmology in the News

Please view this news video and news article from, featuring Dr. Warman, about common adult eye diseases, also found in children. Dr. Warman was recently interviewed by Doral Family Journal for this journal article about the prevention and early detection of eye diseases in children. El Nuevo Herald recently posted this news article, featuring […]

Payment Policy

For the convenience of our patients we accept Visa, MasterCard and cash (no checks accepted). We are a preferred provider for main insurance companies. At the time of scheduling your appointment a determination will be made as to whether you will need to pay the entire cost of the visit. Many insurance plans pay for […]

In case on an emergency

CALL NOW Eye emergencies  (Source: Nicklaus children’s Hospital) Definition Eye emergencies include cuts, scratches, objects in the eye, burns, chemical exposure, and blunt injuries to the eye or eyelid. Certain eye infections and other medical conditions, such as blood clots or glaucoma, may also need prompt medical care. Since the eye is easily damaged, any of […]

What is nystagmus?

Nystagmus is an unintentional jittery movement of the eyes. Nystagmus usually involves both eyes and is often exaggerated by looking in a particular direction. What causes nystagmus? Many conditions are associated with nystagmus. Sometimes the brain’s control of eye movement is poor, resulting in an inability to look steadily at an object. Some forms of […]

Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

Abnormal or overflow tearing is a common condition in infants and babies. In fact, approximately one-third of all newborns have excessive tears and mucus. It is also common for babies’ eyelashes to stick together after sleep, a situation that can cause the eye(s) to become chronically infected. How do tears drain from the eye? Tears […]

What is keratoconus?

Keratoconus is a condition in which the cornea becomes thin and protrudes. Keratoconus, literally means a cone shaped cornea. This abnormal shape can cause serious distortion of vision. What causes keratoconus? Despite continuing research, the cause of keratoconus remains unknown. Although keratoconus is not generally considered an inherited disorder, the chance of a blood relative […]

Itchy Red Eyes

The inside of the eyelids and the surface of the eye respond to irritation by becoming red, swollen with tears and mucous discharge. If the irritant produces a release of immune cells, the reaction is called an allergic process and is accompanied by itching. One person might be more sensitive than another to certain irritants […]

Infantile Esotropia

Your child has a condition Ophthalmologists classify as infantile esotropia. This term describes crossing of the eyes occurring very early in life. Infantile esotropia is not the result of “bad muscles”; it is the result of inappropriate messages sent from the brain centers that control eye movements. These centers are deep in the brain and […]

What is herpes zoster?

Herpes zoster, commonly known as “shingles” is a viral disease that causes a characteristic skin rash of small fluid-filled blisters (vesicles) which form scabs and can leave permanent scars. The first symptom is often severe pain or itching followed by redness of the skin, and finally, the appearance of a few or many of the […]

What is herpes simplex?

Herpes simplex is a virus that infects the skin, mucous membranes and nerves. There are two major types of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Type I is the most common and is responsible for eye disease and the familiar “cold sore” or “fever blister”. Type II is responsible for sexually transmitted herpes and rarely causes infection […]

Focus Effort and its Relationship to Crossing of the Eyes

(ACCOMODATIVE ESOTROPIA) Focus not required when looking at something over 20’ away. Focus effort (accommodation) needed to look at something closer. The brain also moves the eyes inward (convergence) with focus effort. Nature’s perfect plan is to provide a clear picture with proper focus and proper aiming. Sometimes nature’s perfect plan is upset. Too much […]

What is defective color vision?

Normal perception of color is something most of us take for granted. Color labels we attach to objects such as “blue sky” and “green grass” have specific meaning only to people with normal vision. “Colorblind” is an exaggerated term handed down over time, referring to individuals who have abnormal color vision. About eight percent of […]


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