Pediatric Ophthalmology Consultants

Williams Syndrome

What causes Williams Syndrome? Williams Syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material from a specific region of chromosome 7 that affects an elastin gene. Elastin is a protein that gives blood vessels strength and the ability to stretch.  It is a rare disorder and is also called Elfin Facies Syndrome. How is Williams Syndrome […]

Vision Therapy

What is vision therapy? “Vision therapy” is a term used by optometrists. Optometrists define vision therapy as an attempt to develop or improve visual skills and abilities; improve visual comfort, ease, and efficiency; and change visual processing or interpretation of visual information. An optometric vision therapy program consists of supervised in-office and at home reinforcement […]

Vision Screening

What is vision screening? Vision screening is an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead to vision loss   so that a referral can be made to an appropriate eye care professional for further evaluation and treatment How is vision screening performed? There are a […]

Treatment for Progressive Myopia

During childhood, myopia is typically treated with glasses or contact lenses.  Refractive surgery, such as LASIK, is typically used in adults once the refractive error has stabilized.  In progressive myopia, the near-sightedness often begins in early childhood, and worsens through adolescence. Many patients and families inquire about why progressive myopia occurs and want to know […]


What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is a disease that results from infection with the protozoan intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In the eye, Toxoplasma infections frequently cause significant inflammation and subsequent scarring which may temporarily or permanently impair vision.  Ocular toxoplasmosis can be congenital or acquired, and worldwide, toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of inflammation in […]

Thyroid Eye Disorders

What is the thyroid? The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland located at the base of the front of the neck.  The thyroid gland regulates the thyroid hormone, and plays an important role in regulating body metabolism. What are euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid? Normal thyroid hormone level in the blood is considered euthyroid. When the […]

Third Nerve Palsy

What is a third nerve palsy? The third cranial nerve controls the movement of four of the six eye muscles.  These muscles move the eye inward, up and down, and they rotate the eye. The third cranial nerve also controls constriction of the pupil, the position of the upper eyelid, and the ability of the […]

Sturge-Weber Syndrome

What is Sturge-Weber syndrome?                            Sturge-Weber syndrome is characterized by a reddish discoloration of the skin on one side of the face (port wine stain) and malformation of blood vessels of the brain. Does every child with a port wine stain of the skin have Sturge-Weber syndrome? No. The reddish discoloration of the face may […]


What is strabismus and how common is it? Strabismus is any misalignment of the eyes. It is estimated that 4% of the U.S. population has strabismus. Are there different types of strabismus and if so, how are they named? There are many different types of strabismus. Strabismus is most commonly described by the direction of […]

Strabismus Surgery

What is strabismus surgery? Strabismus surgery loosens or tightens eye muscles, which changes the alignment of the eyes relative to each other. What kind of anesthesia is used for strabismus surgery? The type of anesthesia depends on patient age and health as well as patient preference. Most children undergo general anesthesia. Adults may have general […]


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